The Creation Evolution Controversy
By Ken Williams
Copyright (C) 2010 - All Rights Reserved
Mention Noah's Flood among a group of evolutionists and educators, and you will get raised eyebrows, chuckles and even outright bursts of laughter. Evolutionists do not reject Noah's Flood because of scientific evidnce. They refuse to even consider the evidence for the flood because it requires the supernatural; and the Theory of Evolution rejects the possibility of the supernatural out-of-hand.
The fact is that there is a great deal of evidence for a worlwide flood. In addition to that, a worldwide flood answers many of the questions evolutionists either have difficulty answering or have no answers for at all. We will begin our study with a look at the oral and written histories of Noah's Flood. Then we will look at the scientific evidence which supports a worldwide flood.
THE BIBLICAL RECORD IS WRITEN IN GREAT DETAIL
Stories of a worldwide flood, in which a man built a boat and rode out the waters with his family and a multitude of animals, permeate the handed down folklore of almost every culture on every inhabited continent and most islands of the oceans. Some of them even include birds being sent out from the boat to determine if there was enough dry land for the occupants to disembark. Versions of the story have been discovered from the Middle East to the Americas, from Greece to Hawaii. With the notable exception of Egypt, almost every ancient civilizaton had a story of a cataclysmic flood that destroyed most of humanity. Most include a boat built by a man who saved mankind and animals to repopulate the earth. Such stories would indicate that they had a single source; taking on variations as groups of people migrated to the far flung parts of the earth.
What makes the flood, recorded in the Bible, different from most of the cultural stories found in people-groups around the world? Consider three things:
- The biblical record is written with great detail.
- The biblical record is corroborated and expanded upon by ancient
- The biblical record is substantiated by the memorial which the flood
left on the earth.
Read the Book of Genesis, the first book in the Bible, beginning in chapter 6, and see the detail even to the size of the ark Noah was told to build. Today, through engineering studies, we know that it was to the precise dimensions to make it the most stable in violent waters that any craft could be. Oh, by the way, the ark did not look anything like the stumpy little boat with animals hanging over the sides, which is frequently pictured in children's books and Sunday School materials. The ark was one and a half football fields long, two thirds of a football field wide and stood four stories high. It had a capacity of 1,000 railroad box cars, plenty for all of the animals, people, food and supplies necessary for the trip.
Some have objected that such a construction project approximately 4,500 years ago was not possible. However, we do have evidnce of people building large sea going boats 4,000 years ago, and land projects much larger than Noah's ark (and remember, the ark was built on land). Read Noah's Ark: a Feasibility Study by John Woodmorappe, published by Answers in Genesis. It is available at www.answersingenesis.com.
Evolutionists scoff at there being enough water to cover the earth. But the Bible, both in the Genesis account of the flood, and in the Psalms, tells us exactly where the water came from, and it also speaks of the great changes that took place on the surface of the earth because of the violence of the flood. We will address this a bit later in this session.
Let me add one point here. In the book Finding Jesus in the Old Testament (the Jewish Scriptures) by Ken Williams, Outskirts Press, at the beginning of chapter 2, The Torah, I present what I believe to be indisputable proof that God dictated the five Books of Moses (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy) word-for-word in the Original Hebrew. [For details on obtaining this book go to www.outskirtspress.com/store.php and type Ken Williams (or the book title) in the search bar; or you will find it listed elsewhere on this website.]
There are other historical sources to which we could go; but because of limited time, I want to take a look at just two more: the Book of Jasher and the historian Flavius Josephus.
THE BIBLICAL RECORD IS CORROBORATED AND EXPANDED UPON BY ANCIENT SECULAR HISTORIANS
The book of Jasher tells the very same story as the Bible, but adds numerous more intricate details. For instance, it says that Noah, knowing that the world was to be destroyed by God in judgment, refused to marry. However, God told him to marry and have children so he could perpetuate life on the earth after the flood. Noah, it says, married one of Enoch's daughters and had three sons (all the same age, which meant they would have been triplets), all of whom grew up and had wives before the flood came.
Flavius Josephus was a Jewish historian who lived during the time of Jesus and later. He recorded the history of the Middle East up to, and even after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in 70AD. Josephus records that Adam had a revelation from God, telling him that the earth would be destroyed twice in two judgments. According to Josephus, Adam's revelation indicated that the first judgment would be destruction of the world by water; the second, by fire. Josephus goes on to say that Seth (the third son of Adam and Eve) recorded this prophecy in both brick and stone. He is reported to have said that if the waters destroy the brick, the stone would survive; but if the waters destroyed the stone, the brick would survive. Josephus indicated that in 70 AD, that stone monument still existed in "the Land of Syriad." The Bible also indicates two world destructions due to judgment from God. The one is past - the flood. The second is still to come accordng to Peter, who wrote in the New Testamnt that at that time the world will "melt with a fervent heat."
THE BIBLICAL RECORD IS SUBSTANTIATED BY THE RECORD THE FLOOD LEFT ON THE EARTH
Let's first look at what happened during the flood. "...the rain came down in mighty torrents from the sky, and the ('great deep' KJV) subterranean waters burst forth upon the earth for forty days and forty nights" (Genesis 7:11b LB). According to Genesis, there were two sources of water: from above and below. The Hebrew word translated "great deep" in the King James Version, and "subterranean waters" in the Living Bible, means the oceans, and the springs under the oceans which put fresh water into the oceans just as they do on land. It says, they "burst forth" (or in some translations "burst open"). This is just one Hebrew word referring to earthquakes. This is the beginning of a very violent event. Great clouds of steam would have risen from the oceans as myriads of volcanoes exploded below the water. This steam would then return to earth as rain. The Bible says this violent activity continued for 40 days. The currents and the waves picked up dirt, vegetation, gravel, even huge rocks, carrying them back and forth; hydro-dynamically sorting and separating particles by gravity and density, causing a laminating effect that today covers 75 to 80 percent of the earth. The remaining 20 to 25 percent is covered by lava flows, just exactly what you would expect to find from such a cataclysmic event. This layering event continued even as the waters receded. "And the waters returned from off the earth continually... (Genesis 8:3). That word "continually" or "steadily," as it appears in some translations, is really two Hebrew verbs meaning "going and returning." It is speaking of the violent movement of the waters back and forth over the earth as they moved back toward the oceans.
Today 71 percent of the earth's surface is water, totaling some 300,000,000 cubic miles of water in the oceans alone. Engineers have calculated that under pre-flood conditions, that is enough water to have covered the entire earth to a depth of 3 kilometers. Genesis 7 tells us that the highest peaks were covered by 15 cubits, which would be something over 22 feet.
Water, volcanoes and earthquakes were not the only violent activities taking place durng the flood, according to the Bible. According to Psalm 104:8-9, the mountains rose and the valleys sank. The earth's plates forced against each other forcing the mountains into the air. This can be observed all over the world. In the United States this is easily observed in the Rocky Mountains, where the region is called "The Overthrust Belt," referring to the pushing up, with one plate actually moving over another. Not only did the oceans sink (some places over 7 miles deep), but the plates themselves fractured producing fault lines and sinking into huge valleys. In the Rocky Mountains some of the valleys were more than 10,000 feet deep. They are not that deep now, because as the flood waters receded they filled in these valleys with thousands of feet of silt. This is why today you find fossil fields all over the world, many at the very highest elevations with over a billion fish skeletons. One of my favorites is Fossil Butte National Munument nearly two miles above sea level in Western Wyoming, where there are millions of fish fossils from all over the world, with no history of water in the area. There are fish in the process of eating other fish when they were buried alive by the flood. There is even a fossil of a mammal in the process of giving birth when it was buried alive.
As the water sheet-flowed off the continents to the lowest part of the earth, it carried with it silt, gravel and even huge rocks. As the sheet-flow poured into the oceans, it slowed down, and the particles large and small dropped to the bottom, creating the continental shelves which surround every continent, going out into the oceans, sometimes as far as 200 miles. At the edge, they drop off into the deep oceans. As the waters lowered over the continents, the waters became channelized, rushing through beween mountains and hills. As this rushing water came to the oceans, because of its greater speed and force, it cut thousands of canyons into the continental shelves, some of them more than 3,000 feet deep (one more than 12,000 feet deep) and as much as a mile wide. Psalm 104:6-9 tells us where the water went. "You (speaking of God) clothed the earth with floods of water covering the mountains. You spoke, and at the sound of your shout the water collected into its vast ocean beds, and mountains rose and valleys sank to the levels you decreed. And then you set a boundry for the seas, so that they would never again cover the earth" (LB).
There are numerous other evidences which point toward a worldwide flood, and not toward millions and billions of years. They would include things like the Ice Age (singular, not plural) that would have been the natural result of flood waters receding following a worldwide flood. It would also include the movement of quartzite rocks around the world. They were broken off from their original locations, rounded off by the water, moved anywhere from 300 to 1,000 kilometers, banged against other moving and stationary rocks causing stress fractures. Engineers, calculating their weight, the size of the stress fractures, and other things, believe the water which carried them was moving at speeds of more than 65 miles per hour. In the most violent flash floods we know today, the water moves at no more than 15 miles per hour.
Let's look at some other examples. Niagra Falls has been eroding at the rate of 4.7 feet per year over the past 185 years. If, under the Uniformitarian Theory of Evolution, we pick a number, say 3 feet per year, in 120 million years Niagra Falls would have eroded completely around the world, crossing other rivers, falls and oceans that were all doing the same thing (an impossibility). That would only put us back into the midde of the dinosaur era accoring to evolutionists. Obviously that cannot be true. However, if the Great Lakes and the connecting rivers which take the water to the Atlantic Ocean were created by Noah's Flood, and the ensuing Ice Age which resulted from the flood about 4,500 years ago, then the falls are about where you would expect them to be.
The Mississippi River pours more than water into the Gulf of Mexico. It also dumps 300 milion cubic yards of sediment into the Gulf each year. But if you calculate the sediment from all the rivers flowing into the Gulf of Mexico, the deltas and continental shelf account for far less than 10,000 years worth of sediment flow.
What about the Colorado River and the Grand Canyon? Evolution tells us that the great rift in the earth was formed over millions of years as the waters slowly carried all the rock and silt down stream without leaving a trace. There is no delta at the mouth of the Colorado. Are you aware that 900 cubic miles of dirt and rock have gone somewhere? Evolutionists have no answer. Creationists do! It is wrapped up in Noah's Flood and the ensuing Ice Age about 4,500 years ago when millions of acres of fast moving water crashed through the ridge at the north end of the canyon and in a matter of days carried off more than 900 cubic miles of rock, depositing it far out in the ocean as a part of the continental shelf.
If, as evolutionists insist, fully formed human beings have been around for about one million years, the earth's population would be more than three times what it currently is (allowing for sickness, wars, etc.). In addition, some 3 trillion humans should have lived on this earth in a million years. That means burial grounds and human remains should be found everywhee. There are not nearly enough remains to account for one million years, or even a half million years of human existence.
Next we come to the oceans. The oceans are becoming slightly more salty with each passing year, decade, century and millennium. The water runs into the oceans from the rivers. The water then evaporates and returns to the clouds to return as rain again. But the mineral content and the sediment that came into the oceans from the rivers remains behind in the oceans. If the earth were one million years old, the oceans should be thick and soupy, not capable of sustaining life. If the earth has been around a billion years (evolutionists claim 15 billion years), the oceans should be solid. That means there would be little water to evaporate and create rain, leaving the earth a virtual desert.
The idea that it takes millions of years to form oil, coal, diamonds, rock, fossils, stalagmite and stalactites has been proven to be false. Would it surprise you to know that sientists have been watching the development of an oil field off the west coast of the United States for the past few years? It has been forming very rapidly and in a much different way than formerly was believed possible. It is the very first time science has had the opportunity to actually see it happen before their very eyes, and it violates all previously understood knowledge on the subject.
Coal takes millions of years under extreme pressure to form, right? Wrong! That's what we used to think. But today coal can be made in the laboratory in a matter of hours, and with relatively little pressure. The same is true of diamonds and various other types of rock.
What about fossils? Any living thing which dies in the open decays or is eaten, and there is no evidence of any remains. In order for a fossil to be formed, the living thing must be buried alive in mud. That mud must then turn to rock very quickly before the decay process sets in. Evolutionists have no explanation for fossils other than the Ice Ages and various mini-floods around the world. Creationists point to Noah's Flood which would have produced rock layers, one on top of the other over a period of as little as a few weeks, trapping virtually all living creatures just exactly as we find them around the world today. As a matter of fact, the action and results of Noah's Flood (including the laying down of the rock layers) has been demonstrated in the laboratory.
Evolutionists tell us that "New Mexico's Unfinished Symphony was started 250 million years ago. Tiny drops of water, over millions of years, silently created the world's most awesome monument to the wonders of nature. Crystal Spring Dome and the Hall of Giants are names that hint at some of the magnificent formations discovered in the rooms the size of concert halls."
In the October 1953 issue of National Geographic Magazine, page 442, there was a picture of a bat, completely covered in a stalagmite. I wonder how they got that bat to sit under the tiny drops of water" for millions of years so it could be "silently" formed into a stalagmite; and why didn't the exposed part of the bat decompose (unless something supernatural happened to keep it from decomposing) [chuckle, chuckle] during the millions of years it took to encapsuilate the bat? In 1987 a picture was published of huge stalagmites hanging from the roof of a lead mine in Mt. Isa, Australia. The water-created rock even covered signs that had been hung in the mine. The mine was only 55 years old at the time the picture was taken. Or how about the stalagmites hanging and continuing to grow in the base of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, DC? Some of them are more than six feet long. The Lincoln Memorial was built in 1922.
Let's check another example which occurs at numerous locations around the United States, and on every continent on the globe. It has to do with water gaps and wind gaps. The evolutionary explanation is that it is the result of the Ice Ages. They say that melting ice behind a mountain topped the mountain ridge and cut the gap. That sounds logical; but it doesn't work. In nearly all of the cases, the gap was cut through at a location where the mountain was higher than nearby routes, and the rock was harder than nearby alternative locations. At Shoshone Water Gap in Wyoming, the water could have flowed unimpeded around the end of the mountain just a short distance away.
In Eastern Pennsylvania in the Susquehanna Valley, there are six water gaps in a row. The water was flowing down the walley, west to east, when suddenly a huge quantity of water crashed into the valley from the north carrying huge boulders. That water and boulders smashed into the moutain on the south side of the valley at a right angle. The water bounced back and ran down the valley. But the water and boulders continued for days until the violence of it crashed through the mountain and into the next valley, then through the mountan on the south side of that valley until it had crashed through six mountains in a row to create what today is the Susquehanna River Valley. Could the evolutionary explanation that the water topped the mountain and then slowly cut the gap as the waters flowed though? No! Because just a few miles to the east, the water not only could have gone around the end of the mountain; but much water did go around the end until the violence of the flood waters cut the gap by constantly crashing huge boulders into the mountain at right angles. This is just another example of the memorial of the violence that Noah's Flood left on the earth - a memorial we can see around us today.
Finally, let's wind up with a look at the eruption of Mount Saint Helens on May 18th 1980. It was one of the most extraordinary geologic events of the Twentieth Century. It totally disproves the evolutionary models and points to the truth of Noah's Flood. As a matter of fact, it was a catastrophic event on a much smaller scale, and in a localized area, that demonstraed exactly what happened in the worldwide flood.
At 8:32 that morning, the top blew off Mount Saint Helens. 1,314 feet of the top of the mountain was blown away. Here are some of the statistics. An avalanche of dirt, rock and debris covered 23 square miles, burying the North Fork Toutle River up to 600 feet deep, traveling at up to 150 miles per hour. The force of the blast leveled everything over 230 square miles, reahing out as much as 17 miles in every direction, and depositing ash from 3 feet deep at the mountain to 1 inch deep at the edge. The blast destroyed more than 4 billion board feet of lumber, enough to build more than 300,000 two-bedroom homes. 57 people lost their lives. Five separate mudslides traveled at speeds more than 50 miles per hour, destroying 27 bridges, nearly 200 homes, 185 miles of roads and 15 miles of railroad track. It reduced the flood capacity of the Cowlitz River at the Castle Rock by 80% and filled the shipping channel of the Columbia River reducing it from 40 feet to 14 feet and stranding 31 ships in upstream ports. Pyroclastic flows (hot molten lava) covered six square miles, blowing out in rivers up to five miles away, and ranging from 3 to 30 feet thick, with some areas filled in up to 120 foot depths, and tempertures of about 1,300 degrees, traveling at speeds up to 80 miles per hour. The Washington State Depatment of Game estimated nearly 7,000 big game animals (deer, elk and bear) perished as well as all birds and most mammals. They also estimated that more than 12 million Chinook and Coho salmon were killed as well as most other fish in the area.
If you were to take a geologist from some other part of the world who did not know that the scene was the result of a volent volcanic eruption (and no such geologist may exist), just looking at the scene through his evolutionary faith system, he would tell you that the scene (as it is today) was created over millions of years. However, we know it was created in just four days. Let's look at what happened in the area beginning immediately following the eruption, to about five years afterward. You will be amazed!
We will limit ourselves to just two of the many things which resulted from that mammoth eruption: the Mount Saint Helens Mini-Grand Canyon and Spirit Lake.
We'll look first at the canyon. First, the avalanches of dirt and rock rolled across the area, followed by the major mud, and then the lava flows. It laid down layers, burying plants and animals alike. That was followed by a major flood as the glaciers and snow on the top of the mountain melted within minutes, cascading downhill picking up silt, stones and rocks cutting a huge canyon through the layers. The canyon is one-fortieth the size of the Grand Canyon. The mud layers began to harden almost immediately, and within five years had become as hard as any rock in the Grand Canyon. Take a look at the Mini-Grand Canyon at Mount Saint Helens today, and the rock layers along the walls are identical to the rock layers you find at exposed areas all around the world. However, they were not laid down over millions of years, then cut through by a small stream over more millions of years, as evolutionists contend is necessary at the Grand Canyon and other locations. The layers were laid down over four days, and the canyon was cut in one afternoon.
Now let's go on to Spirit Lake. Following the blast Spirit Lake was virtually covered with an estimated one million floating logs. They were trees which had their branches ripped from them by the blast and ensuing destruction. Some had been yanked from the ground with minor portions of their root systems still attached. Most had been broken off at the ground. They ranged from just a few feet to as much as fifty feet in length. Many had portions of their bark stripped and notches carved into them by the violence of the event. As the logs became waterlogged, many of them began to stand up vertically, with the heavier end under water. Then eventually they sank to the bottom. Some sank in the horizontal position, some in a vertical position.
About a year after the blast, divers ventured into the lake to examine what had happened. They discovered both plant and animal life were returning to the lake. But they also discovered two things which put the lie to the geological charts which lay everything out over millions of years. First, they discovered that there was two to four feet of biomass all over the bottom of the lake, which was in the process of turning to coal. It has since turned to coal. The "Divisions of Geological Times" charts used by evolutionists, indicates that the coal we are presently mining around the world took 250 million years to form. Yet we have fully formed coal at Spirit Lake in less than five years. We know we can make coal in the laboratory in a matter of hours. But this was the first time we had seen coal form quickly in nature, demonstrating that under the proper conditions, coal can be formed very quickly, partculrly in a catastrophic event.
The second thing, of interest, that we want to look at, is those trees. They found that those trees which had sunk in an upright position, had been buried in that biomass, now turned to coal; and that in some cases the trees went through more than oine layer: a rock layer below the coal, the seam of coal, and a new layer of silt that was forming above the coal. This answered the evolutionists' conumdrum of fossils which sometimes straddle numrous rock layers. If, for instance, the rock layers were laid down millions of years apart, as evolutionists contend, how could a tree or other fossil survive being partially buried, then wait millions of years for another rock layer to cover more of it. That is impossible! Yet, all around the world we have instances where fossils travrse not just two, but as many as 10, 12 and even more strata of rock, each one of which was supposed to have been laid down millions of years after the other.
The conclusion is that when we look at the Grand Canyon, and other such fissures around the world, we may not be looking at hundreds of rock layers laid down over millions of years, and then cut through over more millions of years by small rivers. We may be looking at silt turned to rock laid down by the violence of Noah's worldwide flood, then cut through in a matter of days by huge amounts of water carrying rock and silt as it was retreating into the oceans. Mount Saint Helens demonstrated that what evolutionists insist took millions of years and even billions of years to produce by natural processs, can, in fact, take place in nature in only a few days.
In the mid 1990's the first of several dinosaur remains were found in Alaska, frozen in ice. To everyone's amazement, they found live blood cells and tissue that still had some elasticity to it. These bones could not possibly have been over a few thousand years old (and even that is a stretch). Certainly they are not more than 65 million years old. But then in 2003 and again in 2005, nearly complete T-Rex remains were found in rock in North Dakota. Again, there were live blood cells, pigment still present, proteins still there, and more tissues which still had elasticty to them. Nearby fish fossils were located, and when the rocks were cracked open, the fish smell, preserved inside, was still there. Mllions of years? Not remotely possible!
Creationists, believing the Bible, point to this as evidence of Noah's Flood. Evolutionists, who also understand that this is not possible in their uniformitarian evolutionary model, had to come up with some sort of explanation. Their official answer is that the blood cells, proteins, plasma and elasticity of living tissues is because, "Mysterious processes which we know nothing about must have preserved these for all of these millions of years." That deserves a "come-now" award. That comes from educated people who refuse to allow any supernatural processes in creation, now calling on a supernatural process to explain how 4,500 year old fossils are really 65 million years old.
The fossil record is not the record of millions of years of development. It is the record of the death of all life in Noah's Flood. Musician Buddy Davis wrote a song expressing what you would expect to find if, in fact, Noah's Flood was a real historical event. The song, in part, goes like this:
Billions of dead things,
Buried in rock layers,
Laid down in water,
All over the earth.
That's exactly what we find. Wet sand, mud, clay, silt, in layers turned into rock all over the earth. Inside that rock are billions upon billions of fossils that were buried alive and preserved as a monument to Noah's Flood.
This leaves us with a choice. The choice is between a little bit of water and millions upon billions of years; or a lot of water and a lot of catastrophe in a relatively short period of time. We believe the evidence points to a shorter period with an all-powerful Creator.
"There is a popular image of human evolution that you'll find all over the place... On the left of the picture there's an ape... On the right, a man... Between the two is a succession of figures that become ever more like humans... Our progress from ape to human looks so smooth, so tidy. It's such a beguiling image that even the expets are loath to let it go. BUT IT IS AN ILLUSION."
Bernard Wood (professor of human origins, George Washington University), "Who Are We?" New Scientist, 2366 (26 October, 2002), page 44.
GEORGE GAYLORD SIMPSON (Evolutionary Paleontologist)
- "This (the gap in the proposed progresson of horses) is true of all
thirty-two orders of mammals..."
- "The earliest and most primitive known members of every order
already have the basic ordinal characters, and in no case is an
approximately continuous sequence from one order to the next
- "In most cases the break is so sharp and the gap so large that the
origin of the order is speculative and much disputed."
For more than a hundred years geologists of all countries have been cooperating in this endeavor and the total thickness of the stratified rocks now recognized would exceed 500,000 feet (95 miles) if all the beds were directly superposed.
No single area contains a record of all geological time... We need only discover and correlate enough of the scattered fragments to build up a composite record of all geologic time.
C. O. Dunbar, Historical Geology, 2nd Edition, pages 9-10
The end product of correlation is a mental extraction called the geological column.
Encyclopedia Britannica, Geochronology," page 779, 1985
Links for more information:
ESSAYS ON THE CREATION/EVOLUTION
By Ken Williams
Essay #1: Dinosaurs - When Did they Really Live?
Essay #2: Have You Ever Thought About This?
Essay #3: Is the Bible Scientifically Accurate?
Essay #4: Neanderthal Man Screams, "Creation!"
Essay #5: Mount Saint Helens: Erupting Away Millions of Years
Essay #6: Millions of Years; or Noah's Flood?
Essay #7: "It Looks Like...But it Can't Be"
Essay #8: Evolution: The Scientific Basis for Racism
Essay #9: The Motivation Behind the Theory of Evolution
Essay #10: Did Man Come from Apes...or...Did God Make Man?
Essay #11: More About Dinosaurs
Essay #12: The Effects of Evolution on American Society and Culture
Essay #13: Giants on the Earth
Plus 43 Vignettes
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